Back pain is a pathological symptom that occurs with a large number of diseases. According to statistics, this symptom ranks second after the typical manifestations of acute respiratory infections. Timely diagnosis of the root cause of the problem improves the patient's quality of life.
The nature of back pain ranges from mild and aching to intense and excruciating. You shouldn't have to put up with the corresponding discomfort. Medicine offers effective methods of relieving pain. The main thing is to see a doctor on time.
Why is it dangerous?
Patients don't always rush to doctors if their back hurts. The reasons for this behavior are most often:
- Weak severity of the pain syndrome.
- Reluctance to communicate with medical personnel.
- Irresponsible attitude towards one's health.
- Fear of spending a lot.
- Hope for an independent regression of the problem.
Sometimes, against the background of changes in the nature of everyday life, as well as the elimination of provoking factors, back pain really disappears. However, in most cases, a person cannot drastically change her behavior, which is fraught with aggravation of the situation.
The danger of ignoring the corresponding symptom lies in the following possible complications:
- Limitation of the motor function of the spine.
- Decreased sensitivity to vibrations, touch or pain in the limbs.
- Persistent deformities of the spine.
- Pathological fractures.
If the spine hurts, then to prevent the development of complications, it is necessary to consult a doctor.
What can hurt your back? Doctors identify more than 20 diseases and pathological conditions that provoke the onset of the corresponding symptom.
In some situations, the problem is easily remedied, in others the patient requires complex and long-term treatment to stabilize the condition. Below we will consider the most common pathologies due to which the back hurts.
Radiculitis is an inflammatory process in the roots of the spinal cord, which progresses against the background of their mechanical compression. The reason is intervertebral hernia, osteochondrosis, tumor.
The pain can be sharp or constantly disturb the patient with periods of sharp increase. An unpleasant symptom is most often localized in the region of the sacrum, it radiates to the buttocks, thigh and leg.
A herniated disc is a protrusion of the corresponding structure, which leads to pain in the affected area. A common cause of the problem is strong physical activity against the background of degenerative-destructive processes occurring in the cartilage between the vertebrae.
Osteoporosis is one of the "culprits" of back pain and bone pain throughout the body. The problem is accompanied by a decrease in skeletal density. Pathology can be both an independent metabolic disease and a symptom of other disorders. If people with osteoporosis have back pain, beware of accidental injury or physical exertion. The risk of pathological fractures increases.
Spondylosis is a natural aging process of the intervertebral discs, which is accompanied by the degeneration of the corresponding structures. For this reason, many older people complain of back pain, especially when the weather conditions change abruptly. Spondylosis is a risk factor for sciatica and herniated disc.
The causes of back pain aren't always obvious. Cancer metastases that develop in the liver, lungs and other internal organs can cause pathological sensations in the spine and ribs. A feature of cancer pain remains a weak reaction to traditional pain relievers. To stabilize the patient's condition, it is necessary to use narcotic painkillers.
Sacroiliitis is an inflammatory process in the SI joint area. If the patient's spine hurts in the lower regions closest to the buttocks, the doctor suspects the corresponding pathology. The problem often occurs in men and can become the debut of ankylosing spondylitis.
Osteomyelitis is a bacterial lesion of bone tissue, accompanied by its necrotic changes. Pain is associated with the multiplication of microorganisms in the pathological area and an increase in the amount of pus. Mechanical pressure on the bone from the inside causes the corresponding sensations.
Spondylolisthesis is a pathology that is accompanied by a displacement of the vertebra with respect to the underlying structure. There is a compression of the roots of the spinal cord with the progression of unpleasant sensations.
Fibrositis is an inflammatory process that occurs in the fascia and aponeuroses. The disease relatively rarely causes the progression of pain in the spine.
Spinal stenosis is a problem that causes a corresponding symptom and threatens the patient with a deterioration in well-being. The reason is spinal cord dysfunction.
Trauma is a common cause of back pain. Depending on the severity of the pathological process, the severity of the symptom and the nature of the treatment differ.
Pain during pregnancy
The gestation period is characterized by the squeezing of the nerve plexuses by the uterus. The result is pain in the back, buttocks and pelvis. To exclude organic pathology, you need to consult with your doctor.
Osteochondrosis is a dystrophic process that leads to degenerative changes in the tissues of the intervertebral discs. The result is sciatica, hernia and the like.
Myofascial syndrome is a muscle pathology accompanied by a strong spontaneous contraction of single conglomerates of cells with the onset of severe pain.
Displacement of the vertebrae
Displacement of the vertebrae is an injury that leads to compression of the roots of the spinal cord, with the onset of pain.
Low back pain is a pathology accompanied by severe shooting pains in the back with migration to the lower limbs. Sometimes the problem is confused with sciatica due to the similarity of the symptoms.
Spinal disc prolapse
Complete spinal disc prolapse is a serious condition that requires surgery. A typical symptom is pain in the affected area.
Ankylosing spondylitis is a joint disease that occurs chronically with gradual damage to the sacroiliac joint and the spine. The progression of the disease is accompanied by back pain and pain.
Which doctor treats back pain?
Which doctor should I go to if my spine hurts? It is worth starting with a local family doctor. For simple pathologies, help at the primary level will suffice. Who treats back pain if the desired result is not achieved? If it is impossible to relieve the symptom, the patient is referred to the following doctors:
Depending on the features of the primary cause of the pathology, the complex of diagnostic and therapeutic methods differs.
It is possible to establish why the entire spine hurts by taking a medical history of the disease, analyzing the complaints and examining the patient.
Additional diagnostic methods:
- Chest X-ray.The study is done for almost all people with back pain to rule out organic spinal injuries.
- Computed tomography (CT).The technique allows to form three-dimensional images of the structures under study.
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).A method that allows you to establish the cause of back pain along the spine if nerve fibers not visualized by conventional CT and X-rays are involved.
General principles of treatment
Pain in different parts of the back needs to be treated based on the root cause of the condition. All measures used to stabilize the patient's condition are combined into three large groups:
- Elimination of the influence of provoking factors- limit excessive physical exertion, good nutrition and rest.
- Back pain medication.Analgesics, drugs that improve blood supply to affected structures, and drugs for the specific treatment of specific diseases are used.
- Physiotherapy.Massage, acupuncture, paraffin applications and other methods of non-drug exposure to a person contribute to the successful treatment of back pain.
There is no specific prophylaxis for back pain. It is necessary to minimize excessive loads, eat right and consult a doctor if characteristic symptoms appear.
Back pain is a symptom that requires an underlying cause. It must be treated in a complex way with the impact on the main pathogenetic factor. It is not worth ignoring the problem due to the risk of complications.